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The measure also correlates ificantly and negatively with individual violence, property crime, and gang involvement Henry et al. Whereas parental involvement was unrelated to physical dating aggression for girls, boys who reported that their parents monitored them more closely reported lower levels of perpetration. A mean score was derived. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. More recently, Kinsfogel and Grych found that the frequency and of friends who engaged in dating violence was associated with self-reported dating violence.

Scores were based on the mean of the subscale items. Contact information was provided in the consent forms so parents could contact research staff with any questions and follow-up calls were made to parents as needed to discuss the study and answer questions. For the last question, we estimated a model that included the four main effects peer deviancy, three parenting domains and three interaction terms interaction of peer deviancy with each of the three parenting domains.

Under conditions of low peer deviance, regardless of the level of parent support for aggression, PPDV levels were low.

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This study is based on the baseline assessment from two successive cohorts of sixth graders. In the unconstrained model, the standardized coefficients differed by 0. These studies suggest that parenting practices may serve as a protective factor in buffering youth against the impact of peer influences on problem outcomes. Figure 1 portrays the unconstrained model of the associations between peer and parent domains and PPDV by gender.

However, the average age of these samples ranged from 14 to Thus, we know little about the factors associated with the perpetration of physical dating violence PPDV among young adolescents.

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However, gender moderated the association between parenting practices and physical dating violence, with parental models inversely linked to dating violence for boys and parent support for nonaggression inversely linked to dating Chicago for girls. In this way, parents may impart their support dating aggression or al their disapproval for such behaviors. Relations between parenting and peer variables and perpetration of physical dating violence.

Tolan, Gorman-Smith, and Henry reported that a family intervention deed to increase parental involvement had ificant positive effects on scale scores. Research staff met with the students who were randomly selected to be potential participants in small groups to explain the purpose of the study, thoroughly review the student assent forms and answer questions. Two important domains of parenting behavior have been found to be associated with child aggression: parental beliefs and attitudes about violence and parent involvement. Parenting and peer variables were ificant predictors of physical dating violence.

This study extends research by examining whether parental support for aggressive and nonaggressive responses to conflict extends to dating aggression in early adolescence. A contrasting gendered pattern was shown for parental support for Illinois solutions. The students responded yes or no to indicate whether the item was something they had heard from their parent s. We hypothesized that, although the parenting and peer variables would be related to physical dating violence for both genders, the associations would be stronger for girls.

Data were omitted from nine students because of patterned responses e. The standardized coefficients for the interaction terms differed by 0. Most items were taken directly from an existing measure Foshee et al.

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However, other studies have failed to find gender differences in associations between peer deviance and dating violence Gwartney-Gibbs et al. Delinquency was assessed with eight items covering status and other minor offending behaviors e. Students received a small incentive for returning the consent form, regardless of consent status e. Active parent consent and student assent were obtained for all participants.

Leff noted that the peer social context is largely ignored in most dating violence prevention programs that instead focus on didactic approaches that teach youth to reflect on individual behaviors in interpersonal contexts. In Chicago, the schools served students in kindergarten through Grade 8. We then conducted three multiple group model tests where each of the interaction terms was constrained to be equivalent across gender, resulting in a one degree of freedom chi-square test. Similarly, Kung and Farrell found that parenting moderated the association between peer pressure and substance use.

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Parent support for aggression also moderated the association between peer deviancy and reported perpetration. The sample for this study primarily consists of the 2, students The Institutional Reviews Boards of all participating universities and the Centers for Disease Control approved all recruitment and assessment procedures. To test gender as a moderator, we compared an unconstrained multiple group model i.

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The items were rated on a 5-point scale and a mean score was derived. For both genders, physical dating violence was ificantly and positively correlated with peer deviancy see Table 1. Second, we examined whether gender moderated the associations between parenting and peer variables and dating aggression. Gwartney-Gibbs, Stockard, and Bohmer found that involvement with aggressive peers was associated with dating aggression among undergraduates.

In a sample of almost 9, middle school students, the scale evidenced good external validity in terms of expected correlations with physical aggression and weapon carrying Orpinas et al. The standardized coefficients differed by 0. Students were asked to take the student assent form and parental consent form home to review with their parent s and to return the consent forms to school. Thirty-seven schools across four diverse geographical sites Durham, NC; Richmond, VA; Chicago, IL; northeast GA participated in an experimental study of the impact of universal and targeted violence prevention interventions for sixth-grade students.

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However, this study focused on older adolescents ages 14— There is a need to better understand the potential influence of peers on dating violence in young teens when cross-gender relationships are beginning to emerge.

This item measure assessed student involvement with deviant peers by asking how many of their friends had engaged in 10 delinquent behaviors in the last 3 months e. Using baseline data from the first cohort, confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and two-factor structures using tau-equivalent models where all item loadings were constrained to 1. This seven-item measure assessed perpetration of physical dating violence. Parent support for aggressive solutions as a moderator of the effect of peer deviancy on physical dating violence. We further hypothesized that the parenting factors would moderate the association between peer deviancy and dating violence such that poor parenting would exacerbate the association of peer deviance with dating aggression.

Findings on whether gender is a moderator of links between peer and parenting domains and dating aggression have been inconsistent across investigations.

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This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Such knowledge has implications for the de of parenting programs that target this potential proximal variable.

Perpetration of dating violence was ificantly correlated in the expected directions with parental involvement and parent support for aggressive and nonaggressive solutions. Noteworthy are consistent findings showing that girls are as or more likely than boys to report physical aggression toward dating partners Magdol et al. To test our next question, the model included the three parenting factors, peer deviance, and three interaction terms for each of the parenting factors by peer deviancy.

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We next examined ethnicity, with Latino as the reference group. The students responded to each item on a 5-point scale, ranging from 0 none of them to 4 all of them.

Until recently, research on adolescent dating relationships has been limited because of the false belief that adolescent romantic affiliations were superficial and transitory Collins, More recent research suggests that these relationships are not necessarily transient and are intertwined with many aspects of development Carver et al.

Finally, gender moderated the interaction between peer deviancy and parent support for nonaggressive solutions. The next question evaluated whether parenting behaviors moderated links between peer deviancy and physical dating aggression. Note : Betas and standard errors in parentheses are reported. Student data were collected in small groups via a computer-assisted survey instrument using laptop computers.

At the other sites, middle schools served students in Grades 6 to 8. Although sixth grade may appear quite young for studying dating, research suggests that romantic relationships emerge during this period Feiring, Connolly, Craig, Goldberg, and Peplar identified a dating-stage model beginning in pre- and early adolescence whereby youth move from same-sex to mixed-gender peer groups that then provide opportunities for cross-gender affiliations. Dating and romantic relationships are central in the lives of many young adolescents Collins, Studies show that physical aggression toward partners during adolescence is not uncommon.

Similarly, parental supervision and monitoring predicted dating violence only for boys.

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Finally, we examined whether gender moderated the peer deviancy by parenting interactions. In addition to the fact that dating begins early for some adolescents, limited evidence suggests that these relationships tend to occur among the highest risk youth. Although there has been some limited investigation of peer and parenting domains in relation to dating aggression, studies have not examined the additive and interactive associations among these relational contexts.

Validity of the Drug Use and Delinquency subscales has been shown with expected correlations with aggression, problem situations that place urban youth at risk for violence exposure, and peer victimization experiences e. Early romantic affiliations tend to emerge from existing peer networks Connolly et al. However, less research has been conducted on associations between peer deviance and dating violence.

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We then conducted four multiple group model tests where the effect for each of the variables was constrained to be equivalent across gender, resulting in a one degree of freedom test. Given the dearth of research, we did not have hypotheses about whether gender moderated the interactions of peer deviance and parenting behaviors. However, among those youth with many problem-prone friends, PPDV was relatively greater when parental support for aggression was also high as compared to when parent support for aggression was low.

Evidence for its validity comes both from prevention and developmental risk studies. Thus, understanding potential links between peer and parent influences and dating aggression in a sample of early adolescents may highlight key directions for prevention efforts. First, we compared daters and nondaters on demographic and risk-taking activity to characterize those young adolescents with early romantic affiliations. The present study builds on research by extending the study of physical dating aggression to include the early emergence of romantic affiliations. The role of gender and adolescent dating violence is complex.

In terms of parenting practices, Foshee et al. Related to parental attitudes are actual parenting practices.

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Learn More. Thus, although negative parenting and peer experiences are likely important risk factors for dating violence, the specific relations and the nature of the relations by gender are unclear.