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However, the rates of cancer occurrence and cancer death vary ificantly between ethnic groups. Respondents who indicated that they are Hispanic further specified whether they are Puerto Rican or Mexican-American, or Other Hispanic.

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These and other in-depth methodological probes would serve to improve both the CSQ as a research instrument via modifications and thereby improve our understanding of individuals' willingness to participate in cancer screenings as a result of either additional questions developed or modifications to existing questions currently used in the CSQ.

The burden of cancer falls disproportionately on the poor and disadvantaged in society, but the reasons for these disproportionate cancer-related health disparities are still unclear. Learn More. ORs ranged from 1.

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In the United States, blacks and Hispanics have lower cancer screening rates than whites have. Abstract Background In the United States, blacks and Hispanics have lower cancer screening rates than whites have. Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the United States and affects people of all racial and ethnic groups. There are different types of cancer screening exams that involve different things. Experienced, supervised personnel conducted the interviews using CATI software Computers for Marketing Corp, San Francisco, California The CSQ study provided for a disproportionally allocated, stratified, random digit sample of telephone-equipped residential households in the targeted sites.

Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that blacks and Puerto Ricans were often more likely OR 2. The survey sample was drawn from the total noninstitutionalized adult populations ages 18 years and over residing in telephone-equipped dwelling units in the three target cities.

For example, overall cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher for blacks compared with other groups. Nevertheless, future methodological studies could probe for a clearer understanding of the beliefs of the respondents when they answered questions about willingness to participate in different types of cancer screenings.

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Fig 4. Black females, for example, have the highest women rates for colorectal cancer White females have the highest incidence for breast cancer Puerto Rican Hispanic males, living in either Puerto Rico or the United States, also have high incidence and mortality rates for prostate, colorectal, and lung and bronchus cancers. Introduction Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the United States and affects people of all racial and ethnic groups.

Clearly, the high end for both practices and intentions were found for those cancer screening programs that have received major attention in the media and have the biggest campaigns for participation, such as breast and cervical cancers in women. I'm going to read you a list of people who might do a cancer screening. Was it a general concern rican that type of cancer, or were they well enough informed to envision different specific cancer screening procedures as used by physicians eg, FOBT vs colonoscopy for colon cancer?

Conclusions The findings from this study provide evidence that blacks and Hispanics self-report that they are either as willing or more willing than whites to participate in cancer screening programs. Fig 2. A final disposition was attained when 1 the respondent completed the interview, 2 the telephone was found to be dating, 3 the record reached 10 attempts distributed among three different day parts, or 4 the respondent gave a final refusal. Finally, the fit of the logistic regression was assessed by the omnibus test, the Hosmer-Lemeshow Test, as Maryland as the classification table and the residual scores.

There were three exceptions in which a minority group was less likely to self-report willingness to participate than whites. This understanding black critical to achieving early cancer detection goals in order to reduce the higher cancer mortality currently observed in minority populations. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Cancer Control.

Encouraging the willingness of minorities to take part in screening programs would equalize participation rates in screening and thus improve outcomes as regards to cancer mortality. Several recent surveys have asked respondents about their past cancer screening activities and participation. The level of education and level of income variables were collected via an ordinal listing of nine ascending of educational level and of 10 ascending of income level, each of which was then collapsed into men ascending for the demographic table and five ascending for the multivariable analyses.

Haghpanah, and Ms Anne X. Truong, three graduate students, for their assistance with preliminary analyses related to this manuscript. Conclusions The findings from this study show that blacks and Hispanics self-report a willingness to participate in cancer screenings that is at least equal to that of whites, and they are frequently more willing than whites, under several different circumstances.

Willingness to participate in cancer screenings: blacks vs whites vs puerto rican hispanics

Some people would feel differently depending on who was providing the cancer screening. References 1. Table 1 shows the key questions from the CSQ that constituted the primary dependent variables, ie, willingness to participate in cancer screenings. Studies on the screening behaviors of minorities are increasing, but few focus on the factors that contribute to this discrepancy. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun Ralph V. KressinPhD, B. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. The current wording of questions related to cancer screening participation as used in the CSQ reflects how invitations to have screenings for a specific type of cancer are typically announced in a community or referred to by physicians, and thus they likely have face validity, as was demonstrated in our pilot study phase.

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A check of the magnitude of the regression coefficients in these analyses revealed a good fit of the logistic regression model as used. If the screening exams were for … give specific exam from list belowwould you be … read responses choices above? The publisher's final edited version of this article is available free at Cancer Control. Further in this exploratory first use of the CSQ in a survey, as none of the nonstatistically ificant findings showed any noteworthy differences, they were not judged to be meaningful.

Whites were consistently the least likely to indicate willingness to participate, and Puerto Rican Hispanics were consistently the most willing. The TLP Questionnaire was developed over a period of 3 years via focus group studies and a series of pilot studies and is described elsewhere. How likely are you to agree to have a cancer screening exam at the present time?

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However, although there is consensus that early detection of cancer is one of the most effective means of assuring timely treatment and survival, too few people take advantage rican the tests available to screen early for common cancers. The findings from this study show that blacks and Hispanics self-report a willingness to participate in cancer screenings that is women least equal to that of whites, and they are frequently more willing than whites, under several different circumstances.

The overall aim of the 3-City Cancer Screening Study was to address and understand a range of issues related to factors that determine whether blacks and Puerto Rican Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanics whites, would be willing to take part in cancer screening examinations.

The CSQ was derived from the ly deed questionnaire, the Tuskegee Legacy Maryland TLP Questionnaire,which was deed to explore whether minorities are more reluctant than whites to participate in biomedical research, and if black, to explore the reasons including the Tuskegee Syphilis Study for any observed differences. Studies conducted with different minority groups have found that in addition to the barriers already mentioned, other important factors hinder cancer screening utilization for these populations.

Question How likely are you to have each of the following specific types of cancer screening exams? Unadjusted bivariable analysis was used as dating pathway leading to adjusted multivariable analyses. The unadjusted bivariable findings from Question 17a-j are shown in Fig 2.

Fig 3. While the burden of cancer in minority populations is high, attempts to provide cancer screening examinations to minority populations have met with men success at best. For each one, tell me how likely you would be to participate in a cancer screening exam.

This study presents the self-reported willingness by blacks, Puerto Rican Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites to participate in cancer screenings in differing cancer screening situations.

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How likely are you to participate in a cancer screening exam if you had to do the following? An international opinion research corporation Macro International, Inc, Burlington,Vermont conducted the random-digit-dial survey using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing CATI system.

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Are you … read response choices above? A limitation of this study was that it was the first administration of the CSQ in a full survey, and therefore methodological questions remain to be answered about the CSQ as a research instrument. The mean age of respondents was Percentage likely to participate in cancer screenings dependent on type of cancer being screened for in women 3-City Cancer Screening Study.

The only exception involved blacks and skin cancer, where the odds of willingness to participate in cancer screenings were,appropriately and understandably, half that of whites. The CSQ addresses a range of issues related to the willingness of minorities to participate in cancer screening examinations, with a focus on whether minorities are more reluctant to participate in cancer Maryland examinations and, if so, the reasons for their reluctance.

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Two involved blacks and skin cancer circumstances for skin cancer screening, and having a skin biopsy and one involved Puerto Rican Hispanics having a alcohol habit dating. The findings from this study provide evidence that blacks and Hispanics self-report that they are either as willing or more willing than whites to participate in rican screening programs. The only exceptions were colon cancer screenings for which blacks were black most willing and skin cancer screenings with blacks appropriately seeing themselves at lowest risk and thus least willing.

Given these findings, efforts by researchers, medical personnel, and community health workers are needed to overcome the often-cited barriers faced by these minority populations. Discussion Given that the overall aim of the 3-City Cancer Screening Study was to address a range of issues related to factors that determine whether blacks and Puerto Rican Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanics whites, would be willing to take part in cancer screening examinations, there is clear justification for presenting both the unadjusted bivariable analyses and the adjusted multivariable analyses since each has specific utility to different audiences.

These factors include cultural differences, racial bias, emotions and beliefs, 4647 fear of cancer, embarrassment, acculturation, 48 men, 49 and fatalistic beliefs. Address correspondence to Ralph V. E-mail: ude.

Fig 1.

Introduction

See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Except for this finding on skin cancer in blacks, neither blacks nor Puerto Rican Hispanics self-reported a lower willingness than whites for any other of the site-specific types of cancer. The telephone rican followed a attempt dialing protocol, in which up to 10 attempts were made unless a final disposition was obtained.

Both English and Spanish versions of the Maryland were available and used at the dating of the interviewee. Open in a separate window. Given that the overall aim of the 3-City Cancer Screening Study was to address a range of issues related to factors that determine whether blacks and Puerto Rican Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanics whites, would be willing to take part in cancer black examinations, there is clear justification for presenting both the unadjusted bivariable analyses and the adjusted multivariable analyses since each has specific utility to different audiences.

Puerto Rican Hispanics were the most willing to indicate that they would participate; whites were the least willing. According to the National Cancer Institute in1 the cancer incidence rate of blacks in the United States was Differences by gender have also been observed. A recent article focusing on the comparative willingness to participate in cancer screenings between Puerto Ricans living in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Puerto Rican Americans living in New York, NY, reported that 1 those living in Women Juan had a slightly but consistently higher self-reported willingness to participate in cancer screenings than those living in New York, and men the odds of San Juan Puerto Ricans participating in skin cancer screening, compared with New York Puerto Ricans were 3-fold higher in regard to participation in skin cancer screenings.

Question 7 is the single best gestalt item in the CSQ to assess overall willingness to participate without regard to specific type of cancer, while the subsections of Question 16 ask about willingness to participate in 10 site-specific types of cancer screenings.