Specifically, the authors describe the strategies of reconciling living with HIV into everyday life by examining the personal lives of this group of men. The data management, coding, and analysis were done using Atlas. Much of the literature on relationships among HIV-positive men, mostly based on studies with men who have sex with men MSMhave noted the difficulties and tension of finding a partner and disclosing the HIV status. The patterns and themes observed during this exploratory stage were documented using the Memo function in Atlas.
Potential participants were informed about the study by program staff and by flyers posted at the agencies. The data analysis was conducted in three stages.
The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. More precisely, Miller describes the process in terms of transformation and adaptation, that is, the adjustment involves developing the ability to see life with illness, including the accompanying changes and challenges, as normal. Other participants in the study took a similar approach opting to dating exclusively HIV-positive women.
One man listed his options to ease the fear of disclosure and prevent exposing others to HIV:. Additionally, individuals had to be able to give informed consent to participate. The participants were asked questions about living with HIV, including their experiences of illness, stigma, and life changes since their diagnosis.
The translations were completed by an independent translator. This article reports on findings from 24 in-depth interviews conducted during the second phase of research.
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To maintain the integrity of the data, the interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Despite the limitations of convenience sampling Marshall,the study captured variation in the sample in terms of place of birth, mode of HIV transmission, and length of time living with HIV, in addition to other common socioeconomic indicators see Table 1.
Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. All the translations were checked and edited for accuracy by the lead author. Interested participants contacted the lead author and were then screened to determine eligibility. The qualitative study consisted of three phases of data collection: Phase 1 exploratory research using focus groups, followed by Phase 2 semistructured in-depth interviews, and Phase 3 a town-hall meeting format presentation to validate the study findings.
Many of the interviewed men remarked that disclosing HIV status to potential partners was challenging. Fatherhood is important in the lives of HIV-positive men. A total of 31 interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Puerto Rican men during that phase of research.
Given the original language of these interviews and in an effort to maintain accuracy while reporting thesethe quotations were translated without regard to prescriptive rules of English syntax. The coding of the transcripts was completed in the original language of the interview. Lean Library can solve it. Given this scenario, one man elected relationships that perhaps would have never been considered prior to being diagnosed with HIV.
Dating and marriage after an HIV diagnosis is challenging; often, HIV-positive men face many issues when trying to reengage in sex and meeting life partners.
Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. All the participants agreed to be recorded and each session was transcribed using the original language. What follows is a rich, qualitative description of the experiences of 24 Puerto Rican heterosexual men as they reconcile their HIV status into their personal and social lives.
The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted in the United States that examine dating, marriage, and parenthood among Latino HIV-positive heterosexual men as service normalize their lives within the context of HIV.
To begin addressing this gap in the literature, qualitative method was used to examine how a group of heterosexual HIV-positive Puerto Rican men engage in dating and approach marriage and family planning. Did you struggle to get access to this article? Hatala, Baack, and Parmenter identified that even when using dating sites where anonymity is possible e.
That the Paterson was like cancer or other illness. Our analysis is set within a discussion dating the experience of illness framework Pierret, exploring the concept of normalcy to expand work on the incorporation of HIV into everyday life Baumgartner, The research community has posited important questions about how people manage life after a diagnosis: how is everyday life informed by the disease, how are individuals shaped by the social and cultural context of the illness, and how do people as new meaning to their lives?
Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. The findings presented in this article are part of a larger ethnographic study investigating the positive impact of illness among a group of HIV-positive Puerto Rican rican living in Boston.
The major objective of the interviews was to explore how these men live with HIV as a chronic illness and, specifically, to document everyday living with HIV. The interviews included a short questionnaire to collect general demographic information and HIV history.
The participants were asked for and gave informed consent prior to participating in the study. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study de to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. Memos were then used as codes to link them directly to the text during the coding stage.
The second step consisted of coding the text for emergent themes following an inductive approach Thomas, to document strategies for adjusting to living long-term with HIV and for coping with the stigmatized notions attached to the illness. By examining how heterosexual men approach dating, marriage, and parenthood following an HIV diagnosis, this article aims to contribute to the scarce literature on the experience of illness of HIV-positive heterosexual men.
First, prior to initiating a systematic data analysis of the transcriptions, a precoding stage was performed. I cannot take a risk like that. After the analysis, selected passages from the interviews were translated into English to be included in the text of this article. Entering the dating world rican, particularly, having intimate relationships was reported to be difficult after an HIV diagnosis by some of the participants in the study. These studies have identified that men either avoid sex altogether, engage in casual sex-only relationships, or become involved in committed or long-term relationships Relf et dating.
You know, perhaps for the fear of being rejected. In this regard, research has identified that although advances in medical science can reduce the risk of transmission Cohen et al. Negative experiences, including stigma, isolation, and rejection, are common among people living with HIV Herek et al.
If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. This stage primarily included a quotation frequency analysis, a report of the of instances that any given code was used to determine coding trends.
The service that appear throughout this article are pseudonyms to protect participant identities. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving rican and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV.
Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. That is, despite the diagnosis and stereotypes of illness, these Paterson exercise agency through everyday practices in normalizing their social lives to redefine what it means to live with HIV.
The experiences shared by the men are organized thematically into three main to describe, in the context of HIV, a dating and sex, service marriage, and c fatherhood. However, while these studies mostly document negative experiences, such as stigma and discrimination, little is known about the social adaptations to living with HIV in everyday life, particularly with regard to dating, marriage, and parenthood.
The 1. Interviews were semistructured and open-ended to explore key research topics. I dating. I know people that are healthy and Paterson with others who are HIV, but it is a big risk. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends.
Not all men rejected relationships completely once diagnosed. This analysis was central to uncovering the themes described in this article. This product could help you.
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Service select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Participants from the exploratory focus groups Phase 1 were excluded from the in-depth interviews Phase 2. Although a great volume of research has been conducted on relationship choices among men living with HIV, the majority of the work has focused on MSM populations.
A Certificate of Confidentiality was obtained to ensure maximum protection for study participants. The present article reports on findings from a qualitative research study that examined the social lives of a group of HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men in Boston, Massachusetts. Seroconcordant relationships, where both partners are HIV-positive, can offer emotional and health protective benefits, along with eliminating the risks and anxiety associated with disclosure Relf et al. In efforts to focus our research on heterosexual men, 7 participants who self-identified as gay during the interview were excluded from the analysis.
At this stage, particular attention was directed toward identifying patterns in rican data: commonalities, discrepancies, curiosities, metaphors, and selections of words, as well as outlier events and cases. Often, such disclosures were received with rejection, motivating censorship from seeking romantic relationships. Interviews were dating in the preferred language of the respondent, the majority of which chose Spanish.
Finally, to complement the systematic qualitative data analysis, additional data mining techniques were performed to explore the data for additional patterns and themes. The impact of illness on everyday life has been the focus of many studies that examine the adjustments people make when facing an incurable illness Nack, ; Paterson, ; Townsend, ; see also Charmaz, ; Larsen, This body of research demonstrates that people with chronic illness follow an adjustment process that involves strategies Royer, for redefining a sense of normalcy that coincides with the level of functioning determined by the condition.
The desire to father children is particularly greater among men without children in comparison with men who had fathered children prior to their diagnosis Chen et al. In the case of HIV, diagnosis is a life-changing event accompanied with feelings of despair and loss.
Only two interviews were conducted in English. The overall aim of this study was to explore positive adaptations to living with HIV as a chronic illness. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in deing interventions that support healthy living with HIV.
Despite challenges, an HIV diagnosis does not preclude dating, marrying, or having a family.