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We present a phylogenetic dating of asterids, based on a taxon tree representing all major groups and orders and 83 of the families of asterids, with an underlying data set comprising six chloroplast DNA markers totaling positions. Phylogenetic dating was done with bhm dating Lafayette rate smoothing by penalized likelihood. Confidence intervals were calculated by bootstrapping. Six reference fossils were used for calibration. The genus Rosa comprises more than woody species characterized by intensive hybridization, introgression, and an overall complex evolutionary history. Here we analyzed 5S ribosomal DNA in 19 species covering two subgenera and the major sections within subg.

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All possible responses to these items were formulated through a Likert Scale with a range between 0 never and 6 very frequently.

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The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. For this reason, we Rosa a new instrument, based on scientific bibliography and other instruments about ADV. Although the cultural context may influence the prevalence and determinants of ADV in each country, no differences are expected in the structure of the instrument, as we are using a wide range of possible determinants. Lastly, to assess if the associations between other variables and subscales were different within sexall analysis were replicated stratifying by sex.

As is usual in epidemiological surveys, they were informed that by agreeing to fill in the questionnaire, they were giving their consent. The strongest associations between dating violence dating variables related to it were found within the relationship power imbalance items, suggesting that these items may be useful to detect adolescent dating violence when a specific questionnaire cannot be implemented. This may be the result of social desirability bias. All data were gathered through an online, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire during class time.

It includes items related to psychological, physical, and sexual violence, both suffered and perpetrated, and taking place in person or virtually. This great variability of dating violence prevalence is due to the different samples and instruments used by the researchers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. The majority of the studies included in this review were conducted in the USA, although studies from Canada, Spain, and several Scandinavian and Latin American teen were also reviewed.

In addition, studies show that ADV can be perpetrated and suffered by both girls and boys, but some differences are found. Fit indices were very good in all cases, suggesting configural invariance or construct invariance across countries. Overall, the strongest associations to dating violence were found within the relationship power imbalance items, suggesting that these items may also be useful to detect dating violence situations.

Another meta-analytic review of studies, the majority of them from the USA, found that 1 in dating adolescents reported suffering physical ADV and 1 in 10 reported being victims of sexual ADV [ 3 ]. For analysis purposes, these variables were dichotomized into never scale 0 and ever scales 1—4as any substance use during adolescence entails health risks [ 34 ].

Studies about bullying and dating violence show that both types of violence share risk factors such as low empathy or high impulsivity, among others [ 16 ]. Teachers and students were informed about the anonymity Rosa confidentiality of the study. According to a systematic review of studies, psychological dating violence ranges from 4. Prevalence of perpetration teen sexual and physical ADV is higher among boys, while psychological ADV is perpetrated more commonly by girls [ 2 ].

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Among them, only 3. All scales were positively correlated to each other Figure 1. School staff were entrusted with the management of parental permission. Bidirectional aggression members of the couple being both perpetrators and victims in that same romantic relationship is common among adolescents [ 410111213 ]. Some instruments are too long and may not be feasible to include them in a multipurpose questionnaire.

Preliminary analyses showed a Kaiser—Meyer—Olkin of sampling adequacy of 0. Bullying is considered a repeated and deliberate act to hurt a specific person [ 33 ].

Items that showed an overlap in more than one factor were dropped from the respective subscale. To achieve this goal, we decided to include new questions related to psychological, physical, and sexual ADV in the YL questionnaire.

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Differences in the adolescent dating violence ADV subscales across groups defined by some predictor variables, stratified by sex. These variables were dichotomized into completely disagree answer 0 versus any degree of agreement answers 1—6. The research team elaborated two scales about suffered and perpetrated ADV, taking into the existing questionnaires and bibliography about ADV. Both scales encompassed eighteen items for psychological, physical, and sexual or violence.

Cultural adaptation of the modified version of the conflicts tactics scale (m-cts) in mexican adolescents

Ethical approval for the whole project was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the University of Navarra, Spain project ref. Preliminary data from Spain, Chile, Peru, and Mexico, collected among November and Octobershowed that psychological dating violence was indeed a frequent problem among adolescents from all the participant countries, especially among boys [ 32 ]. Several studies, conducted in Spain and in the USA, also find a peak in physical partner violence at the age of 16—17 [ 789 ].

Background: Several instruments have been developed to assess adolescent dating violence but only few have been validated in Spanish-speaking settings. Then, a closer examination of the item showed that it had both psychological and physical qualities, so the item was dropped from the final subscales. During adolescence, personal beliefs, such as gender stereotypes, myths about love, or justification of violence in relationships, and several behaviors, such as alcohol consumption or bullying, can lead to dating violence [ 214 ].

It can take place in person or virtually Rosa 1 ]. These findings are consistent with dating research about ADV showing that psychological violence is more frequent among adolescents than physical or sexual violence [ 34 ]. The factor structure of both violence scales was then assessed through a principal factor analysis, with oblique Promax rotation [ 36 ]. Among girls, substance use was related to both suffered and perpetrated violence, and fewer relations were found between opinions related to sexual violence in relationships and dating violence outcomes.

The VADRI has 52 items 26 items in both forms of victimization and perpetrationincluding psychological, sexual and physical violence items, which may make its implementation difficult in some cases. Apart from physical injuries, or even death, ADV has been associated with an increased risk of mental health disorders, depression, anxiety, eating teen, suicidal behavior, and antisocial behaviors or teen risk behaviors, such as abuse of alcohol and other drugs [ 18192021 ]. We developed an instrument to be used in the YourLife project, an international project about young people lifestyles.

Schooled adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years fill out a project-specific questionnaire. When internal consistency was measured within each country, all Cronbach alphas were higher than 0. Students were free to leave the classroom at any given moment. Therefore, the final sample size for this analysis was mean age of the whole sample is The majority came from co-educational schools The items of the questionnaire, used for this analysis, can be classified into the following areas:.

According to a study conducted in a sample of engaged couples from Mexico, perceived relationship power imbalance seems to be a valid proxy of intimate partner violence and could lead to greater forms of violence later in marriage [ 23 ]. The highest means were found for the suffered psychological violence scale, followed by perpetrated psychological violence. The data are not publicly available as they are still being exploited. The ADV-YL questionnaire seems to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess adolescent dating Rosa in Spanish-speaking countries.

In both perpetrated and suffered violence, items consistently measure the same construct. The consequences of ADV for adolescent dating are known. The initial YL questionnaire included, among other topics related to adolescent health, several items about psychological dating violence.

In addition, psychological violence can be a predictor of physical violence and adult intimate partner violence in the future [ 22 ]. Binge drinking: 4—5 alcoholic drinks in few hours.

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In light of thosewe proposed to further assess the problem of ADV among schooled adolescents. This issue has not been evaluated in dating adolescents. Apart from the psychopharmacological effect of alcohol, other personal factors, such as antisocial personality traits, might explain the association between alcohol and violence [ 15 ].

As explained before, we only included participants who had a current partner or had a partner in the past. Learn More. The minimum average method suggested taking two factors per subscale. In many cases, a long instrument is not feasible, for example, when it is implemented together with other instruments or questions, and when there is limited time to fill it out, as is the case in the YL questionnaire.

ADV is a serious public health problem. Digital violence was also included.

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Several instruments have been developed to assess ADV, but only some of them exhibit adequate psychometric properties or have been validated in Spanish-speaking settings [ 24 ]. After a final structure was chosen with the whole sample through EFA, we performed confirmatory factor analysis CFA within each country, in order to test whether the same structure was appropriate for the three countries [ 37 ]. The research team invited Rosa schools to participate in the study during the years and These participants were from Spain.

It includes cross-sectional analyses and a longitudinal follow-up. Associations between dating violence and variables expected to covariate with it substance use, school peer aggression, justification of dating violence, and relationship power imbalancewere tested. Table 3 shows the associations between ADV subscales and several variables often found associated to ADV in the literature [ 214 ]. Although the prevalence of dating violence in this study was low, the ADV-YL tool seems to adequately distinguish different forms of dating violence.

In addition, the structure of the questionnaire was confirmed in the three countries through the Confirmatory Factor Analyses. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. In that period in Spain, there were some mobility restrictions but no lockdowns, and the students were attending schools in-person. Among boys, all items except those teen to substance use were associated with at least one form of dating violence. There were also differences between suffered and dating ADV, with higher scores for the former.

Assessing adolescent dating violence in the yourlife project: proposal of an instrument for spanish-speaking countries

from EFA are shown in Table 1. These variables were dichotomized into never answer 0 versus ever answers 1—6. Furthermore, the ADV subscales exhibit good internal consistency. Differences in the adolescent dating violence ADV subscales across groups defined by some predictor variables. The link between alcohol and intimate partner violence is complex. Objective: We aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of this instrument in three Spanish-speaking countries Chile, Ecuador, and Spain.

The final of principal factors was decided based on the minimum average partial correlation method, also considering the conceptual classification of the items.

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Conclusion: This instrument seems to be adequate to assess suffered and perpetrated adolescent dating violence within a multipurpose questionnaire among schooled adolescents. Items can be found in Table 1. According to studies from the USA and European countries, psychological ADV is more frequent than physical or sexual violence [ 456 ]. Note: Weights below 0. Other drugs: cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, etc. After EFA, two factors were offered from both suffered and perpetrated violence, with seven items in Factor 1 and 11 items in Factor 2.

Table 2 shows the for suffered and perpetrated violence in each country. Method: We included participants, aged 13—18 years.